By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Rod Foroozan MD
Offers a symptom-driven method of the analysis and therapy of significant neuro-ophthalmic stipulations. With the focal point at the sufferer, this ebook emphasizes exam and applicable adjunctive reviews, together with a dialogue of diagnostic imaging modalities, and leads the reader in the course of the occasionally refined manifestations of neuro-ophthalmic disorder to anatomical localization of lesions and definitive prognosis. an summary of the anatomy of visible pathways is observed by means of many illustrations.
Upon finishing touch of part five, readers can be capable to:
- Describe a symptom-driven method of sufferers with universal neuro-ophthalmic proceedings which will formulate a suitable differential diagnosis
- pick out the main acceptable assessments and imaging, according to symptomatology, to diagnose and deal with neuro-ophthalmic issues in a cheap manner
- check eye circulation problems and the ocular motor method
Read or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 5: Neuro-Ophthalmology PDF
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Extra resources for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 5: Neuro-Ophthalmology
This radial arrangement of the axons of the bipolar cells (the Henle layer) is responsible for fluid accumulation in a star-shaped pattern. Another key anatomical feature of the retina is the location of the optic disc and the begin ning of the optic nerve nasal to the fovea. Thus, although ganglion cell fibers coming from the nasal retina can travel uninterrupted directly to the disc, those coming from the tern poral retina must avoid the macula by anatomically separating to enter the disc at either the superior or the inferior pole (Fig 1-18).
The macular fibers terminate more posteriorly. Fibers from the most lateral (temporal crescent) visual field (originating only in the contralateral eye) terminate most anteriorly. The cortex is heavily weighted to central retinal activity, with 50%-60% of the cortex responding to activity within the central 10° and approximately 80% of the cortex devoted to macular activity (within 30°). The superior portion of the cortex continues to receive information from the inferior visual field in a retinotopic distribution.
Ischemia is among the most common pathophysiologic causes of visual dysfunction (including vision loss and double vision). The common carotid arteries, arising from the innominate artery on the right and directly from the aorta on the left, supply most of the blood to the skull and its contents. The remainder of the blood supply to the skull comes from the 2 vertebral arteries (VAs), which enter the skull through the foramen magnum after traversing foramina in the cervical vertebral segments. Once the VAs penetrate the dura, they join near the pontomedullary junction to form the basilar artery (BA), which ascends along the anterior surface of the pons to terminate in the 2 posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) at the level of the midbrain.