Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section by American Academy of Ophthalmology, Ramana S. Moorthy MD PDF

By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Ramana S. Moorthy MD

ISBN-10: 161525563X

ISBN-13: 9781615255634

Starts off with an outline of immune-mediated eye illness, summarizing uncomplicated immunologic thoughts, ocular immune responses and targeted themes in ocular immunology. Discusses the medical method of uveitis and stories noninfectious (autoimmune) and infectious different types of uveitis, with an improved part on viral uveitis and new fabric on infectious and noninfectious scleritis.

Enhanced detection of infectious brokers through immunologic and genetic tools and biologic therapeutics are precise. additionally covers endophthalmitis, masquerade syndromes, problems of uveitis and ocular features of AIDS.

Upon crowning glory of part nine, readers will be capable to:

Identify common and particular pathophysiologic methods that impact the constitution and serve as of the uvea, lens, intraocular cavities, retina, and different tissues in acute and persistent intraocular inflammation
Differentiate and determine infectious and noninfectious uveitic entities
Choose acceptable exam strategies and correct ancillary experiences in accordance with even if an infectious or noninfectious reason is suspected

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Additional resources for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 9: Intraocular Inflammation and Uvetis

Sample text

Innate Mechanisms for the Recruitment and Activation of Macrophages Monocyte-derived macrophages are the second important type of effector cell for the in nate immune response following trauma or acute infection. The various molecules involved in monocyte adhesion and transmigration from blood into tissues are probably similar to those discussed in connection with neutrophils, although they have not been studied as thoroughly. However, the functional activation of macrophages is more complex. Macrophages exist in different levels or stages of metabolic and functional activity, each representing different "programs" of gene activation and synthesis of macrophagederived cytokines and mediators: • resting (immature or quiescent) • primed • activated A fourth category of macrophages, often called stimulated, reparative, or inflammatory, is used by some immunologists to refer to those macrophages that are not quite fully activated.

Unlike monocytes or lymphocytes, neutrophils do not leave a tissue to recirculate but remain and die. Phagocytosis Phagocytosis ofbacteria and other pathogens is a selective receptor-mediated process, and the 2 most important receptors are the antibody Fe receptors and the complement receptors. 20 • lntraocular Inflammation and Uveitis . Thus, pathogens in complexes with antibody or with activated complement components are specifically bound to the cell-surface-membrane-expressed Fe or complement (C) receptors and are effectively ingested.

NO is also a highly reactive chemical speci es that, like reactive oxygen inter mediates, is involved in various important biochemical (unctions in microorgan isms and host cells. The formation of NO depends on the enzyme nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), which is located in the cytosol and is dependent on NADPH (the reduced form of nicotinamideadenine dinucleotide phosphate). NO is formed from the terminal guanidino-nitrogen atoms of L-arginine. Several types of NOS are known, including several forms of constitutive NOS and an inducible NOS.

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