By Carlo Zaniolo, Stefano Ceri, Christos Faloutsos, Richard T. Snodgrass, V.S. Subrahmanian, Roberto Zicari
The database box has skilled a fast and relentless progress because the improvement of relational databases. The growth in database platforms and functions has produced a various panorama of specialised expertise components that experience frequently develop into the unique area of analysis experts. Examples comprise lively databases, temporal databases, object-oriented databases, deductive databases, obscure reasoning and queries, and multimedia info structures. This e-book offers a systematic creation to and an in-depth therapy of those complicated database components. It provides practitioners and researchers with authoritative assurance of fresh technological advances which are shaping the way forward for advertisement database structures and clever details structures.
Advanced Database platforms used to be written through a staff of six prime experts who've made major contributions to the advance of the know-how parts lined within the publication. making the most of the authors' lengthy event instructing graduate classes, this booklet is designed to supply a gentle creation to complicated examine issues and comprises many examples and routines to aid its use for person examine, table reference, and graduate lecture room educating.
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Extra info for Advanced Database Systems
22 2. 4 Revised step 4 of DB2's statement processing 4. Apply the NEW transition values to the database, thus making the state change associated to event E effective. For each integrity constraint IC violated by the current state, consider the action Aj that compensates the integrity constraint IC. a. Compute the transition values (OLD and NEW) relative to Aj. b. Execute the before-triggers relative to Aj, possibly changing the NEW transition values. c. Apply NEW transition values to the database, thus making the state change associated to Aj effective.
34 2. SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS OF ACTIVE DATABASES * The action is an arbitrary data manipulation program; it may include transactional commands (such as ROLLBACK WORK) or rule manipulation commands (such as the activation or deactivation of active rules or of groups of active rules), and sometimes may activate externally defined procedures. Some rules are limited to monitoring a single event. However, in most cases, rules monitor a collection of events, with an implicit disjunctive semantics: they become triggered if any one of the monitored events occurs.
There can be causal dependencies between the initial transaction and the detached transaction, for instance, postponing the commit of the detached transaction until after the commit of the initial transaction, or forcing the detached transaction to roll back if the initial transaction rolls back. Execution of the action relative to the condition's consideration can be immediate, deferred, or detached as well: o Immediate execution, where the action's execution immediately follows the condition's consideration, is used in almost all cases.