Download Advances in Computers, Vol. 9 by Marvin Zelkowitz Ph.D. MS BS. PDF

By Marvin Zelkowitz Ph.D. MS BS.

ISBN-10: 0120121093

ISBN-13: 9780120121090

In view that its first quantity in 1960, Advances in Computers has awarded targeted assurance of thoughts in and software program and in machine thought, layout, and functions. It has additionally supplied contributorswith a medium within which they could research their matters in larger intensity and breadth than that allowed by way of commonplace magazine articles. consequently, many articles became common references that stay of important, lasting price regardless of the speedy progress happening within the box.

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Extra info for Advances in Computers, Vol. 9

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2 Digital Advantages Digital computers have quite different advantages: They can be as precise as one desires and can be made as accurate as time and input data will allow. The basic operation is counting, which to most people comes naturally. They handle logical operations exceedingly well. They have prodigious memories. Once set up and debugged, a problem or simulation can be removed, stored indefinitely, then replaced exactly as it was. With floating point machines, scaling is no problem. They are versatile, being able to handle mathematical, scientific, and business problems with equal facility.

And speed is important because it makes it possible as well as economically expedient to simulate some kinds of systems and solve some classes of problems in faster-than-real-time. Sometimes running in faster-than-real-time may be desirable for purely economic reasons; for instance, in stochastic processes, where many thousands of runs may be required to produce statistically significant results, or in multivariable optimization problems, which also require many runs. A t other times, faster-than-real-time operation may be a requirement imposed by the nature of the system simulated; for instance, in certain adaptive control schemes which require the model to be run at many times the speed of the system to be controlled, or for predictive displays which show the consequences of current action a t some time in the future, or with some techniques for the solution of partial differential equations when the results are required for a simulation operating in real time.

But even then the amount and kind of noise should be under the control of the investigator. The ability to eliminate or control noise not only allows the experimenter to validate his own w-ork by repeating the experiment but also al1ows him t o compare his results with other workers in other locations, a difficult thing to do precisely when different experimental animals (or people) are involved. ). 7 A Hybrid Example Because we have discussed some of the more or less unique difficulties attendant on the simulation of physiological systems, and because we have said that hybrid simulation is best for the tough ones, we will use a hybrid simulation of a physiological system as an example of what has been done.

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