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J) Intakes and outlets. (k) Landing gear and wheel bays. 5 Clear Ice Phenomenon A clear ice layer is usually accompanied by frost on the underwing. Severe conditions occur during precipitation when sub- zero fuel is in contact with the wing panels. Clear ice accumulations are very difficult to detect from ahead of the wing or behind during walkaround, especially in poor lighting and when the wing is wet. The leading edge may not feel particularly cold. The clear ice may not be detected from the cabin if wing surface detail shows through the ice.

Several incidents have shown that increased awareness of one part of the flight/ground crew team could have avoided a critical situation. Both parties should know the details of when the aircraft was de- iced and the type of fluid involved. Remember, uncertainty should not be resolved by transferring responsibility, the only satisfactory answer is clear communication. 1 Weather Aircraft Icing Handbook Icing conditions on the ground can be expected when air temperatures fall to or below freezing and moisture exists in the form of humidity, precipitation or condensation.

4 Surfaces to be Protected During Anti-Icing (a) Wing upper surface. (b) Horizontal stabiliser upper surface. (c) Vertical stabiliser and rudder. (d) Fuselage upper surface depending upon amount and type of precipitation (especially important on centre engine aircraft). Type I fluids have limited effectiveness when used for anti- icing purposes. Little benefit is gained from the minimal hold-over time generated. 5 Aircraft Icing Handbook Limits and Precautions Aeroplane related limits: The use of Type II and IV fluids in 100% concentration or 75/25 mixture is limited to aircraft with a rotation speed (VR) higher than 85kts.

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