By A.P. French
An advent to Quantum Physics. The M.I.T. Introductory Physics sequence
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Extra info for An Introduction to Quantum Physics. The M.I.T. Introductory Physics Series
For increasing frequency, the absorption coefficient shows a general decline but exhibits an abrupt increase when the x-ray photon energy becomes large enough to remove an electron from an inner shell. [From data of S. J. M. Allen, Phvs. Rev. 1 I 1 I 111111 10 5 I , 1 I 50 1 I-NJ 100 ' I 300 Frequency v (101" Hz) falling back into their original state after being temporarily dislodged, whereas the x-ray emission comes from an outer electron falling into the vacancy created by the complete ejection of an inner electron from the atom.
B) Bragg reflection. Constructive interference among atoms in a single plane requires the angle of reflection to equal the angle of incidence. Constructive interferIncident ence among planes x rays requires nA = 2d sin 0. Thus x rays of given wavelength will be strongly reflected by the array only for particular values of 0. 32 The original analysis by von Laue treated the problem, as basically one must, in terms of the scattering of an incident x-ray beam by all the individual atoms in the three-dimensional lattice that makes up a crystal.
21' He forced a connection between the Einstein relation E = liv for photons and the Newtonian picture of electrons in orbits around the atomic nucleus. Bohr's two main postulates were the following: 1. " I n any one of these states the electrons perform orbital motions according to the laws of Newtonian mechanics, but (contrary to the predictions of classical electromagnetism) do not radiate so long as they remain in fixed orbits. 2. When the atom passes from one stationary state to another, corresponding to a change of orbit (a "quantum jump") by one of the electrons in the atom, radiation is emitted in the form of a photon.